If we wish to attain a peak direction capacity of 1,80,000 PPH, we could do so by operating the Alternative E1 [Primary20] on four routes or E2 [Primary25] on five routes or E3 [Primary30] on six routes or any combination there-of.
If we opt for the Alternative A (Bogota Model) on four routes, we can get a capacity of 2,01,600 PPH. Alternatively, if two routes of F (Primary 12.5) and three of say E3 [Primary30] are adopted, we get capacity of 2,34,000PPH. Thus we get capacities much higher than target 2,00,000PPH.
Let us look at another aspect. A five lane highway in a congested mode moves at average speed of 8 to 10kmph This then carries at most 10,000PPH. In the current situation of Metro construction, one lane has been allocated to Metro construction, implying by that that the motorcar passenger through put has reduced to 8,000PPH. If the average speed increases, then the spacings increase whereby throughput decreases. The motorcar throughput may come down to be as little as 5,000 to 6,000PPH. It is the need of this set of road users that the BRTS we are suggesting to introduce must also accommodate.
Thus in the Primary alternative E1, we place every alternate bus a Premium quality bus E1, E2 or E3, whose combined capacity comes to 4,200 + 1,800 + 900 = 6,900PPH. Thus if we ply them thus, the overall capacity of four routes will be 4 x (45,000 + 6,900) = 2,07,600PPH. While Primary bus user’s waiting time is 20 seconds, highest Premium Service user will have to wait at most 1 minute, but is eligible to travel at lower Premium Service Buses or even the Primary Service Buses there by waiting time is as little as 10 seconds.
There could be a 24 Hour Bus Pass scheme thought of in which any person who travels for the day pays a fixed amount that enables him to travel any distance in that category or lower category any number of times. This is under premises that people do not travel for the sake of traveling but to carry out tasks for which one has to travel. This idea needs to be explored further just as the Premium BRT idea needs to be explored in detail.
Lastly, yet most importantly, the system must provide for the proverbial last mile connectivity, leaving the final connectivity for the foot or luggage on wheel or simply the para public transport like autorickshaw or taxis modes. These proverbial last mile connectivity shall be from the Primary corridor bus stops or railway stations by specially designed micro buses whose capacity shall be 10, which can be ply on some fixed routes with intermediate stage stops. Frequency of these shall be adjusted to match overall demand but not less frequent than 1 minute. These micro buses shall be battery operated. On the same lines the Primary and Premium BRT buses shall draw energy from overhead cables running along the corridor but on its small bank of battery at road junctions and areas not having overhead cables. All this will assist in curtailing emissions from burning of fossil fuel in Mumbai. Since Premium Services offer some degrees of exclusivity, these are likely to be accepted by large number of motorcar user, again that will reduce GHG emissions within the city.
Details of costing will be a worthwhile exercise but prima facie, the BRTS will cost about `30Cr per km. A 300km of BRTS should cost 300 x 30 = `9,000Cr. We know from the MMMP-2015, the 194km of Metro is estimated to cost about `1,00,000Cr. For a mere 10% of metro expense, Mumbai will have a public transport capacity of 1,80,000 (railways) + 1,44,000 (Metro Max) + 2,07,600 (BRTS) = 4,24,000PPH. Even if Metro construction gets delayed due to funds crunch, Mumbai can have a capacity of 3,87,600PPH marginally more than 3,60,000PPH, the current load on railways.
£13.4 million initiative to create a driverless transport testing area based in the Royal Borough of Greenwich and nearby Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in London is due to be up and running by spring 2019.
Loughborough University, the lead academic partner, has been awarded £500,000 as part of the project to develop a research programme enabling a real-world working test bed for connected and autonomous vehicles.
The Smart Mobility Living Lab, where London will enable companies to trial their ideas, technology and services within complex public environments; helping them develop new vehicle systems and big city transport applications.
The project partners, led by TRL, also include Transport for London, Costain, Cisco, Cubic, DG Cities and the London Legacy Development Corporation.