Alcohol Sniffer Systems
Alcohol ‘sniffer’ systems can detect the presence of alcohol on the driver’s breath using sensors from a remote location. If alcohol is detected, driver is required to blow into a breathalyzer unit. If the breathalyzer unit confirms the presence of alcohol, then the system either immobilizes the vehicle or limits the speed of the vehicle to reduce crash risk and severity.
Technologies are being developed for detecting and assessing impairment based on reaction times and coordination. Such performance tests would require the driver to complete and pass a psychomotor driving task (i.e., tracking or reaction time task) when they first enter the vehicle and, depending on the results, will either allow the ignition to be started or will immobilize the vehicle.
The drunk driving can also be prevented by use of Electronic licenses and smartcard license readers. These devices could be used to help enforce alcohol restrictions and alcohol interlock requirements. Electronic licenses store information about the driver, such as their age, license status and any restrictions or conditions on their license, and use this information to determine if the person is allowed to drive. The electronic licenses could be used in conjunction with alcohol interlocks. For example, the system would disable the vehicle if the driver has alcohol in excess of the amount allowed.
CCTV to better target alcohol and drug testing
CCTV or video analytics may be deployed to detect potentially impaired drivers approaching alcohol testing sites. The system helps in better targeting alcohol/drug testing by identifying and targeting those drivers who appear under influence of alcohol based on their observed driving performance. Police monitoring the traffic using this technology could inform to Police testers the details of vehicles that they should target.
Vehicle Immobilisation Technology
A telematics system installed on vehicles can immobilize them during high alcohol and drug use times (e.g., at night or on the weekends). This system would prevent recidivist drink or drug drivers from driving their vehicle during these higher risk times.
In an attempt to increase seatbelt wearing rates, a range of seatbelt reminder systems is being developed and introduced by several vehicle manufacturers. Most of these systems are linked to the driver’s seat only. The new seatbelt reminder and interlock systems are designed to detect unrestrained occupants in all seating positions. The Seatbelt interlock systems are connected to one or more seats that contain sensors both within the seats and in the belt assembly. The vehicle ignition is disabled if these sensors determine that any occupant in the vehicle is not using seat belt. The frontal image speed cameras have also being developed to take a frontal image of vehicles detected speeding. These cameras are capable of identifying the driver of the vehicle and the front license plate. The image is detailed enough to determine if the two front occupants of the vehicle are wearing seatbelts.
Giving Way (Emergency Vehicles)
The emergency vehicles, ambulances, fire tenders etc need to be given priority in traffic. The ITS technologies can provide drivers with an advanced warning of an approaching emergency vehicle in emergency mode (e.g., lights and sirens active) so they have more opportunity to move out of the emergency vehicle’s path. In vehicle emergency, vehicle proximity warning devices issue warnings to drivers when an emergency vehicle is approaching.
Railway Level Crossing warnings and camera
A range of prototype technologies have been developed and evaluated that detect approaching trains and provide in-vehicle or infrastructure based warnings to drivers at unmanned railway level crossings. These systems use a range of sensors and transmitters to detect approaching trains, such as sensors to detect the vibrations of approaching trains or transmitters located on trains that are detected by receivers in vehicles approaching the crossing. The approaching train warnings can be provided to drivers as visual and/or auditory warnings located within the vehicle or in the road environment around the crossing.
Keeping a safe following distance
The rear-end collisions constitute a major proportion of all police-reported road crashes, particularly in urban areas. In majority of cases, the rear -end collision is attributed to one or both of two principal factors: driver in attention or distraction and following a lead vehicle too closely. Rear collision warning devices have been designed to monitor the time headway between vehicles and either alert the driver about an impending collision (Forward Collision Warning) or assist the driver to maintain an appropriate time headway from the lead vehicle by issuing visual and/or auditory alerts when drivers reach an unsafe following distance (Following Distance Warning). Time headway is defined as the distance in meters from a vehicle ahead divided by speed in meters per second. Close following detection devices can be used to detect drivers who are tailgating. Such systems provide Police with an objective measurement of vehicle’s following distance. Cameras have been developed that are capable of detecting the distance between vehicles and taking a visual image of those vehicles that are detected travelling too close to the vehicle in front. Laser Technology has also developed a hand-held laser speed detection system with a built-in following distance detection device. This‚ distance between cars device is capable of determining the distance between two moving vehicles. The device can be used in handheld mode or mounted on a stationary Police vehicle. A camera unit can also be attached to the device so that an image of vehicles deemed to be following too closely could be taken.