Prevention of mobile phones in vehicles
Mobile phone jammers prevent mobile phone use by transmitting a signal on the same frequency as the mobile phone signal and at a high enough level so that the two signals cancel each other out. The mobile phone detector/alerter fitted in the vehicle that can determine if a mobile phone is being used. This system would then issue a warning signal on the exterior of the vehicle that alerts the Police. Mobile phone alerters are currently used in hospitals, where mobile phone signals can interfere with medical equipment.
ALPR System and EVI
ALPR system is capable of automatically detecting and reading the registration/license plates of vehicles that pass the system’s cameras.
ALPR systems fitted to Police vehicles would prevent Police from having to manually enter vehicle licence plate information into their on-board system, decreasing their chance of being involved in a distraction-related incident.
Electronic Vehicle Identification (EVI) devices can identify vehicles through an electronic tag located on the vehicle that contains unique vehicle information using a wireless communication link to read. This electronic tag can be located anywhere on the vehicle and can transmit vehicle information such as registration number, vehicle identification (VIN) number, vehicle make, model and dimensions, and vehicle classification category. EVI can be used in a range of applications including traffic law enforcement, by automatically identifying vehicles that are over speeding, violating red lights, or moving in restricted lanes. Electronic tag readers linked to speed and red light cameras can be activated when a vehicle is detected over speeding or violating a red light. System designers and researchers claim that the use of EVI has a number of advantages over automatic license plate recognition systems, namely being able to detect every vehicle passing the reader unit unlike license plate recognition systems which cannot read all license plates under certain lighting conditions or if the plate is dirty.
Electronic licenses or keys can be used to prevent drivers from driving outside the conditions of their license (e.g., preventing drivers from driving during certain hours or from driving certain vehicle types). Electronic licenses could be linked to their owners in order to prevent people from using another driver’s license to start the vehicle, by requiring drivers to input a PIN number or scan their fingerprint when they enter the vehicle.
Weigh-in-motion stations and vehicle length measuring devices are installed at a number of locations to detect violations of heavy vehicle mass and dimension limits. Cameras or ALPR systems could also be linked to these measuring stations to identify vehicles that exceed the maximum weight and dimension limits and issue infringement notices to the vehicle owner, driver or other responsible party.
CCTV for Violation Detection
Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) could be fixed at different locations to monitor driver behavior and detect traffic violations, such as travelling in restricted lanes, illegal overtaking, failing to give way to other road users, using hand-held phones and not wearing a seatbelt or motorcycle helmet. CCTV could be linked to imaging technology or automatic vehicle identification systems in order to automatically send notices and impose penalties to traffic rules violators.
In-vehicle Event Data Recorders
The critical information about the vehicle like speed, location, acceleration, deceleration can be recorded and logged using In-vehicle event data recorders. Event data recorders could be linked to a GPS receiver on the vehicle to establish vehicle location and programmed to record certain driving data. The traffic police can use the data from the system.
Remote Engine Immobilization
Remote engine immobilization works by preventing the vehicle from being restarted once the system has been activated and the engine has been switched off. Engine immobilization could also be coupled with a vehicle tracking device so that Police can track the vehicle at a safe distance.
Remote Speed Governing Device
A remote speed-governing device that limits the vehicle to the local speed limit requires the system to be linked with a GPS system and digital road map containing the speed limits, as well as a vehicle tracker.
This technology works by reducing vehicle speed to a point where Police would be able to more safely intercept the vehicle without the danger of a high-speed pursuit.
Vehicle Tagging and Tracking Device
An alternative to remote vehicle immobilization technology is vehicle tagging and tracking technology. A realtime vehicle tagging and tracking device called Star Chase has been developed during 2006 in the US that is capable of tracking offending vehicles in real- time. The system consists of an adhesive vehicle tracking dart containing a GPS receiver, radio transmitter and power supply that is fired by Police from a compressed air launcher onto an offending vehicle. The launcher can be a hand-held device or mounted on the front of a Police vehicle. The offending vehicle’s position is determined via GPS and wirelessly transmitted to the Police where they can track the vehicle in real-time.
Electronic Toll Collection
Today, most toll roads are equipped with an electronic toll-collection system, like E- ZPass, that detects and processes tolls electronically. E-ZPass uses a vehicle-mounted transponder that is activated by an antenna on a toll lane. Users’ account information is stored in the transponder. The antenna identifies the transponder and reads your account information through reader as displayed in the Figure 17.5 The amount of the toll is deducted and you’re allowed through.
This service provides information to the drivers, dispatchers, and intermodal transportation providers, enabling carriers to take advantage of real-time traffic information, as well as vehicle and load location information, to increase productivity. Therefore this system also acts as check for violation of over-loading in the freight traffic.
Detection for Red-light & Speed Violation
Traffic violation of traffic signal during red light and over speeding at signalized intersections in urban areas are very rampant where police man can not cope with fully to prosecute the errant drivers. Therefore ITS based ANPR system become very effective to stop these kind of traffic violations.